November the 18th, appeared a Comet for 16 Months, a new Star very bright and clear, larger than Jupiter, far higher than the Place of Comets ; it was in the Conſtellation of Caſsiopeia, behind her Chair, which, with the three fixt Stars there, made a Rhombus Figure ; it never changed its Place, but by Degrees evaniſhed, becauſe of its Diſtance : The like was never ſeen before. From November the 2d, till after Epiphany, a hard Froſt, great and deep Snow, with ſeveral Rains which freezed as they fell, and therefore broke Boughs of Trees with the Weight of Ice ; Wind North and Eaſt till after the Aſcenſion ; a very late Spring. Stow, cum aliis. --- The Plague raged over all Poland ; and at Baſil was a malignant Fever, chiefly fatal to Men of robuſt Conſtitutions ; it rarely ſeized Infants, Women, or Children ; Men were taken with a ſudden Weakneſs. The Diſeaſe mimicked a continual putrid Fever, and was fatal to moſt, who before their Death had Spots break out on their Bodies, but no Bubos or Carbuncles. The Intemperate were ſeized firſt, they died the 10th, 11th, or 12th Day, rarely reached the 14th ; ſuch as eſcaped were ſix Weeks before they recovered. --- Schenckius ſays, that Galen’s Hemitritean began to ſpread in July and Auguſt, but chiefly in October ; then ſuch as were recovered, relapſed, being terrified at the Seaſon over France and lower Germany, ſo that it was doubtful whether to define it an acute or chronic Diſeaſe. It was mild at firſt, but not without ſome Suſpicions of Malignity or Putridneſs. The firſt Inſult was with a ſlight Horror, and in moſt with a ſmall ſhivering Fit ; though ſome few had it not. The Continuance of the Diſeaſe was no leſs different, being fom the 4th to the 27th Day ; and from that again put off to one or other of the future critical Days : It miſt not a Family, and ſcarce a Perſon, but took all in their Turn. Some had two Exaterbations in a Day, others one ; but all had it ſeverely every other Day, either with Horror or Rigour, yet no great Senſe of Cold. Thus it went on to the 4th or 17th Day ; in ſome few it declined from the Beginning. A wonderful Intemperature of the Air preceeded in 1571. A Southerly, rainy, cloudy, ugly Harveſt, but a much wetter Winter followed, with continual Rains, Winds, and Snow, to the middle of February, from that ſevere Cold, with a conſtant N. or N. E. Wind to the Equinox, dark and cloudy, (look back to 1571.) At the ſame Time were daily Depredations and Tumults, Loſs of all Sorts of Goods. Great Terror filled all Breaſts. Women and Poor fell firſt, as they were firſt attacked by the Diſeaſe, as alſo corpulent Habits. Flegmatic melancholy Perſons and Children came off eaſieſt, though they afterwards felt its Fury in 1574. The Diſeaſe broke firſt out in the Camps, then diffuſed itſelf over all Europe. In ſeveral Places the Symptoms varied a little from what we ſaid in 1571, as ſome had livid Tumours in their Legs, or broader Spots like black Bruiſes, or Contuſions ; Melancholicks with Inflammations redder or blacker, which quickly turned to a Gangreen or Mortification. Beſides the Symptoms above of this Fever, all had a great Malignity of redundant Bile, and fluggiſh Flegm. Theſe that had Watchings after the 9th, 11th, or 14th Day, then fell into a Sleep of ſeveral Days, there was great Hopes of them, eſpecially were the Sleep was followed by a general Sweat ; but where the Watchings ended in a Coma, Catalepſis, or Cataphora, the Affair was over. Many began favourably, but after the 4th or 7th Day went into a great Phlogoſis, with a continued or interrupted Delirium. Such as began more ſeverely, were often in leſs Danger. It was fatal where the Toſsings were greateſt on the even Days ; or if there was a Diſcharge of good Blood before the 7th Day ; or if there were cold Sweats between the 4th and 9th Day ; or if ſmall black Puſtles appeared ; or if there was a Delirium, Tremblings of the Hands and Feet, convulſive Pulſe, with Toffings and great Reſtleſneſs, Tremors, Incontinence of Urine and Stool, all bad. At firſt the Urine was thin, and ſcarce tinctured ; then gradually turned brown, or bloody, or jet black. Not one recovered where it had not a very thick large Sediment of Bile or Flegm like Pus or Feces ; though this was prevented by a Looſeneſs in many. The Urine of many that died, had a black Circle, and inſufferable Stench. Some had a very ſharp dry Tongue, with deep Chops, ouzing out a ſanious Matter. In ſome it was inflamed and much ſwelled ; in others ſcaly ; in ſome black ; in others green as Leeks ; the Urine of the laſt was of the ſame Colour ; all ſuch died. Some had the entire Skin peel off their whole Tongue, ſo that in cleanſing them ſeven or eight Spoonfuls of Skin came off in 24 Hours (this was a fatal Sign, and happened chiefly to thoſe forbidden the Uſe of Wine) like ſmall Chips firſt, then fleſhy, then membranaceous, followed the Urine of ſome of the Sick ; after that a furaceous Matter ; laſtly, ſmall little Corpufcles, as is common in the Plague, eſpecially with white and pale Urine. In ſome few, after a long Delirium, the Sediment of their Urine was firſt a pale red, then more bloody, then white, equal and ſmooth. There was often a livid black at the Bottom, then became gradually clearer and thinner. There were ſome whoſe Urine in the middle of the Sediment, had a clear tranſparent Space, which indicated the Recovery of the Sick, but with the greateſt Severity and Danger. The Criſis of this Fever was neither ſudden nor perfect, but required ſeveral Days to abſolve it ; and was herein influenced by the Moon. --- The curative Part conſiſted in opening the Obſtructions, reſiſting the Virulence of the Putrefaction or Malignity ; (for of the many Bodies that were opened, either all, or the greateſt Part of the Viſcera, were found black as a Coal, or full of ſuppurated Puſtles) laſtly, in ſtrengthening and ſupporting Nature ; all which were beſt obtained by the ſame Method judiciouſly diverſified : They gave Decoctions of Roots of Aſparagus, Plantin, and wild Sorrel, for ſundry Days. The richer Sort had a Julep of Simple Oxy-ſacchorine, Syrup of the acid Juice of Citron, or Lemons, with Sugar of Roſes in Carduus, Betony, or Peach-Leaf-Waters, or the like, whereby the Belly being gently moved, the Sick had great Relief. Strong Purges were fatal, for the Looſeneſs could hardly ever be ſtopt, or the dejected Spirits raiſed ; therefore Infuſion of Rhubarb, with ſometimes Agaric and Senna ; or to delicate Bodies, Syrup of pale Roſes, of Rhubarb, Caſsia, Manna, or lenitive Electuary, ſtewed Prunes, Pill. Ruff. &c. were given two or three Times. Moſt that were let Blood of, died, except taken the firſt, or at moſt ſecond Day from ſome rare Plethorics, or where there was an Inflammation. But cupping and ſcarifying of Legs, Arms and Shoulders, was very uſeful. They had a Diaſcordium, which they found highly beneficial ; and Vinegar and Wine, equal Parts, mixt, and ſeveral Times diſtilled, and the Ingredients of the Diaſcordium infuſed in it ; only a greater Quantity of Camphire and Bole were added to it. But to the Poor were given Decoctions in Whey of wild Sorrel, Wood Sorrel, with Currants, &c. In caſe of Worms, nothing was found equal to a Powder of Hart’s Horn, Coraline, and Rhubarb. Againſt violent Pains of the Head, and Fear of a Delirium, Ointment of Roſes, Populeon, and white Ointment, with Camphire mixt and uſed. For exceſsive Watchings, Requies Niolai, with a little of ſome moderate Syrup, or the like; as Diacordium, Water Lillies, Poppies, and Poppy Water. ’Tis ſcarce credible how many were cured by a Decoction of Sarſaparilla, prepared in a double Veſsel, which reverberated its Steam. To ſome a Decoction of Roots of Plantin, Eryngo, Aſparagus, Avens, &c. The Diaſcordium was near the ſame with that for this Fever in 1571. Thus from ſeveral Authors in different Countries, we have got a pretty good Account of this Fever.