In 1578, and on April the 6th this Year, and May the 12th, were general Earthquakes over all England. October the 10th, a Comet in the South buſhing toward the Eaſt ; it continued from October to January, full two Months, Stow. ---- The Weather for ſome Years, paſt having been extraordinary moiſt, wet, and rainy, Wind South, at the Riſing of the Dog Star came a cold dry North Wind. From the Middle of Auguſt to the End of September, raged a malignant epidemic Catarrh ; it began with a Pain of the Head, and Feveriſh Heat : Some were diſpoſed to Sleep, others to Watching ; preſently followed a dry Cough, Pain of the Breaſt, Haſkneſs, and Roughneſs of the Throat, Weakneſs of the Stomach ; at laſt a terrible Panting for Breath, like dying Perſons. Though the Cough laſted not long, yet the Panting for Breath continued to the 14th Day. Some ſweated, ſuch recovered the 30th or 40th Day ; they did not expectorate much. With ſome the Diſeaſe went off by Stool ; in others by Urine. Though all had it, few died in theſe Countries, except ſuch as were let Blood of, or had unſound Viſcera. Of the firſt died in Rome at this Time 2000. The Cure conſiſted of repeated Lenitives, cooling Inciders, and Pectorals. In other Places it appeared ſomewhat different, according to varying Conſtitution of the Seaſon. In ſundry Places it begun with a Wearineſs, Heavineſs, and painful Senſation ; Heat and Horrours ſeized the whole Body, chiefly the Breaſt and Head, with a dry Cough, Hoarſneſs, Roughneſs of the Jaws, Difficulty of Breathing, Weakneſs, and Langour of the Stomach, Vomiting green Bile, like Juice of Leeks ; which Symptoms increaſed with the Diſeaſe, as the Fever, Cough, Weight and Pain of the Head, pricking Pain of the Extremes, Watching, Dryneſs, and Roughneſs of the Tongue, and Shortneſs of Breath. At the State of the Diſeaſe all theſe were heightened, Catarrh, Cough, Spitting. Some had Swellings on the Glands of the Throat. In ſome it went off by Stool ; in others by Urine or Sweat, or bleeding at the Noſe. Some had Spots. With ſome it ended in a Pleuriſy, Peripneumony, or Conſuption ; All recovered very ſlowly. This Diſeaſe raged all over Europe at leaſt, and prevailed for ſix Weeks. Yet if in any Place it was preceeded by a Drought, Bleeding gave the ſpeedieſt and greateſt Relief ; as at Montpelier, ſo as not one of a 1000 died of it. The ſame Epidemic returned in October and November that Year ; then Bleeding, even in theſe Places, was hurtful, except when a ſpitting of Blood, Pleuriſy, or Peripneumony attended it. At the ſame Time a Fever of the ſame kind prevailed, which Sennertus ſays, reigned all over the World ; and was the ſame with that of 1551, as the Cattarh and Diſorders of the Breaſt were the ſame with thoſe of 1510, 1591, 1597, 1610, &c. over all Europe, with a Rheum and Diſtillation from the Head, either with or without Fever, Pain of the Head, Heavineſs, Hoarſneſs, Weakneſs . To thoſe Symptoms this Year, were joined a Cough, Pain of the Jaws and Neck. Sinnertus, Foreſt, &c.---Says Reverius, after a prodigious Plague of Inſects in April and May, the like Epidemic broke out and ſtrangled many , but where proper Means were uſed, all recovered : It began with a Fever and Cough, then followed again a Pain of the Head, and Loins ; then the Fever intermitted a few Days, and returned with freſh Vigour. Some had no Reſt, but the Heat increaſing, they died ; as ſome did of a Phrenzy, and others of a Conſuption ; but ſpeedy proper Means ſecured them, viz. Bleeding, Laxatives, and Pectorals, Cuppings, cooling Clyſters, cordial Opiats, and Epithems. --- Laſtly, let us hear Chriſt. Math. From the Corruption, and Intemperature of the Air, aroſe an Epidemic, which travelled from E. and S. to W. and N. for in June it was in Sicily ; in July, in Rome and Italy ; in Auguſt, at Venice and Conſtantinople ; in September, in Hungary and upper Germany, Bohemia and Saxony ; in October, on all the Baltick Coaſt ; in November, in Norway ; in December, in Denmark, Sweden, Poland and Ruſſia. It ſeized very ſpeedily, ſo as all People were taken with an Ephemeris, or Cough, from a Defluxion of the Breaſt. Many before who had been ill of Diſeaſes of the Breaſt, died. In the End of July died of this Diſeaſe in Rome, 4000 ; at Lubec, in October, 8000 ; at Hamburg 3000 ; at Bremen, Brunſwick, and Lunenburgh, an infinite Number ; in all Countries, Cities, and Families, ſcarce any but they were down at once ; only ſome were worſe than others, according to the Diverſity of Conſtitutions, Ages, Uſe of the Non-naturals, &c. Such as uſed no Medicines at all, came off better, ſooner, and eaſier than ſuch as did. --- In the Summer and Harveſt, ſays Balditius, raged an epidemic Diſeaſe, commonly called the Male del Caſtrone, or Moutone. From France it ſoon overſpread all Italy ; it was a continual Fever for four or five Days, with a Pain of the Head, Straitneſs of the Breaſt, and Cough ; it was terminated by a profuſe Sweat ; Bleeding and Purging were both hurtful, Sudorifics uſeful ; the Sick were allowed Wine, or Wine and Water to drink ; few died of it. In Grand Cairo 500000 died of the Plague in ſix or ſeven Months Time ; it came into Egypt from Barbary, which is always the fataleſt Plague that enters Egypt, far exceeding that from Greece or Syria, which are the only three Places whence they have it. It never viſits this Country before the latter End of September, or Beginning of October ; nor continues longer than the Beginning of June ; when not only it, but its Contagion is ſaid to ceaſe ; ſo that after that, all Infection from Cloaths, Houſes, Perſons, Furniture, &c. diſcontinues. The ſooner it comes, the ſeverer, more fatal, and durable it is ; the later, the milder, leſs diffuſive, and ſhorter it is. Of all Places in the World, it makes the greateſt Havock of People in Grand Cairo, and the Banks of the Caleg ; yet the Sick are beſt attended in it, and moſt Care taken of, from the Mahumedan Doctrine of abſolute Predeſtination, that the Number of particular individual Perſons ordained to die of this Diſeaſe, with their Time and Place of their Death is ſo fixed, that the Fate is irreſiſtible, and unavoidable ; hence the Sound and Infected live together, lye together ; no ſooner is one dead of it, than another healthy Perſon dreſſes with the Cloaths of the Deceaſed ; and when aF amily dieſ of it, their whole Cloaths, and other Goods and Furniture, are next Day brought to the open Market, and readily ſold off. --- At Alexandria many peſtilential mortal Fevers abound in the Autumn. Strangers are ſooner infected, and in greater Danger from them, than the Natives. The Urine, Pulſe, and febrile Heat of the Sick differ very little, if at all, from the ſame in healthy State. They are commonly known thus : They begin with much bilious virulent Vomitings, with a torturing Pain, and cannot keep any Food on their Stomach ; they have conſtant Toſſings and Reſtleſneſs, and many have a Looſneſs of thin, bilious, moſt fetid Stools of ſundry Colours ; they loath Food, and though their Tongues are parched, rough, and black, yet they have little Thirſt. Beſides the Plague of Cairo, and Yearly Fever of Alexandria, the Egyptians have ſeveral Epidemics, as Inflammations of the Eyes, Leproſy, Elephantiaſis, moſt ſudden and fatal Phrenzies, moiſt peſtilent Small Pox, Arthritic Pains, all Kinds of Catarrhs, Hernias, Stone, Conſumptions, Obſtructions of the Abdiminal Viſcera, Weakneſs of the Stomach ; Tertian, ardent, hectic, and peſtilential Fevers. Of all the Nations, they formerly uſed Scarifications of the Legs moſt, and with greateſt Succeſs. They did it thus : They handle and nib the Parts well, then ſet them in a large Veſſel of warm Water, and pour the Water often on them with their Hands, and gently whip them with ſmall Reeds ; all which they repeat ; then tie them under the Ham with a Leathern Garter, then rub and handle them in the Water, and whip till they are are red ; by this Time the Parts are ſtupified that the Sick feel little Pain from the Scarifications ; then beginning above the Tendo Achillis, they ſcarify pretty deep, according to the longitudinal Direction of the muſcular Fibres : In the firſt Story they make two longitudinal Inciſions ; in the ſecond they make three or four ; and in the three other Stories, five Slaſhes apiece all the Height of the Calf of the Leg : This done, they let them ſtand in the Water, and waſh and rub all the while ; if they uſe it for a particular Place, they ſcarify only one Calf ; if for Evacuation, as in a Fever, they take both : The common Number of Inciſions made in the five Stories on each Leg, is from 20 to 40, according to the Age and Strength of the Sick. Some in their Plague make three or four large Wounds in their Calf, each four Fingers breadth long, and keep them open till the Fever is gone. From theſe Scarifications, they take from one to two Pound of Blood ; then looſe the Garter, waſh the Legs, rub them well down with their Hands dipt in Oyl, wrap them up, and in three or four Days the Legs are well. They uſe this Scarification in all putrid Fevers. This greatly relieves the Head, ſo as they ſeldom have violent or continual Pains, Watchings, Delirium, Phrenzy, or the like. Nor are the Hypochonders ſo much diſtended or inflamed. Nor are they ſo liable to Toſſings, Reſtleſneſs, Anxiety, Difficulty of, or Catching for their Breath, Symptoms too common in acute, malignant, peſtilential Fevers ; they uſe it in all internal Inflammations, and for Childrens Inflammation of their Tonſils and Jaws. (But in Infants they ſcarify behind the Ears for the laſt.) In the Plague, they with good Reaſon, and great Succeſs, fly to the four or five deep Slaſhes to be kept open, as to the laſt and ſacred Anchor. They ſcarify alſo in chronic acute Pains, after Univerſals, and in every obſtinate Inflammation, either external, or in the Viſcera, on the Part affected, or the next to it ; and in Eryſipelas, in prodagric Pains, Tumours, and Ulcers, that cicatrice difficultly. In Defœdations of the Skin, in Bites of mad or venemous Beaſts, they ſtill retain the ancient and uſeful Practice of Inciſion, ſo much depended on by the Ancients, but too much neglected by modern and preſent Phyſicians. When they perform the Operation, they take a Piece of old Linnen, a Cubit long, and three Fingers broad, wrap in it a Piece of Goſypium, and with a Silk Thread tye it in Form of a Pyramid, and apply its broad End to the Part to be burnt, fix it well to the Place, put Fire to the narrow End, ſuffer it to burn till the Rag and Goſypium are burnt away ; and while the Skin is burning, they touch the Edges about with an Iron, that an Inflammation ariſe not from the Heat ; they always make a Hole in the middle of the Bundle for the Air to paſs ; when it is burned, they dreſs it with Marrow of Bones to haſten off the Eſchar, This is the Method of Egyptians, Arabians, and others living in Tents. They uſe it in all Chronic Pains of the Joynts, or other Parts which come from a Defluxion of cold Humours, or flatulent Tumours, Laxneſs or Weakneſs of the Parts. In the Sciatic, Gout of the Hands or Feet ; in all Defluxions from the Head, Breaſt, or Lungs, Diſeaſes of the Eyes ; in Epilepſies, Palſies, Apoplexies, Vertigos, Madneſs, Lethargy, Dulneſs, Fooliſhneſs ; they burn the hind Head, Forehead, Neck, behind both Ears. In moſt acute Pains of the Eyes, Ears, and Teeth, they burn the Temples ; as alſo in periodic Pains of the Teeth, and Putrefaction of the Gums and Teeth. In a Phthyſis and Empyæma, they burn the Breaſt, in cold, weak, flegmatic, flatulent Stomachs, for Hardneſs or Schirroſity of the Spleen, in a Dropſy, in Pains of the Back, Loins, Neck and Joynts, and for pituitous Tumours. The Uſefulneſs of theſe two Operations may apologize for giving the Manner nd Uſes of them from Proſp. Alpin. ---- A ſtrange Apparition was ſeen in Somerſetſhire, 60 Perſonages all cloathed in black, a Furlong diſtant from their Spectators ; after their appearing and tarrying a little while, they vaniſhed ; but immediately another ſtrange Company in like Manner, Colour, and Number, all in bright Armour, which likewiſe encountered one another, and ſo diſappeared. Four honeſt Men Spectators, made Oath of this before Sir George Norton. Cl. Examp.